Modale Hilfsverben (modal auxiliaries)

Die modalen Hilfsverben (modal auxiliaries) können nur im present tense und im past tense benutzt werden. Deshalb kommen für die Bildung der anderen Zeiten ihre Ersatzverben zur Anwendung.

Formen von can/be able to

present tense:Many Scandinavians can speak English.
past tense:He could not understand a word of French.
He was able to rescue the child from the fire.
present perfect:He has not been able to finish work until today.
past perfect:I had been able to help him.
future I:Will he be able to break the world record?
future II (future perfect):I will have been able to finish the task by next Friday.
conditional I:I would be able to speak French some day if only I took more lessons.
conditional II:If he had practised more, he would have been able to achieve a better result.

Formen von have to

present tense:I have to answer the questionnaire right now.
past tense:Tom had to take the dog for a walk.
present perfect:We have had to do a lot of overtime lately.
past perfect:They had had to paint the house before they moved in.
future I:She will have to look for a babysitter.
future II (future perfect):I will have had to complete the investigation before making an official statement.
conditional I:He would have to look after the dog if he stayed at home.
conditional II:The police would have had to start another investigation if they hadn't found any suspects.

Modale Hilfverben und deren Ersatzverben

can – kann
could – konnte/könnte
could have – hätte können

As it was not raining for days, we were able to finish building our home. (simple past)

Ersatzverb (substitute form): to be able to

may – kann vielleicht, dürfen
might – kann vielleicht (schwächer als may)
might have – hätte können

After he had been allowed to drive that fast car, he won the race. (past perfect)

Ersatzverb (substitute form): to be allowed to

shall – sollte
should – soll
should have – hätte sollen

She was supposed to meet her instructor at the gym. (simple past)
In the 1980s the Millers emigrated to America where they were to stay for good. (simple past)

Ersatzverb (substitute form): to be (supposed) to (Wiedergabe einer Anweisung/vom Schicksal oder Umständen bestimmt)

ought to – soll
ought to have – hätte sollen

They ought to have helped the old woman carry her suitcases. (simple past)

kein Ersatzverb (no substitute form)

must – muss

They have just had to leave for their trip to England. (present perfect)

Ersatzverb (substitute form): to have to, to have got to

must not – nicht dürfen

They would not be allowed to travel if they could not display their passports. (conditional I)

Ersatzverb (substitute form): not to be allowed to

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